has featured hostile aliens using advanced to attack Earth ever since the iconic BBC series premiered back in 1963. Today, we are closer than ever to emulating some of this sci-fi technology, although none of it is being used to conquer the world just yet. In honor of Doctor Who’s 60th anniversary in 2023, here are some of the most memorable baddies and their surprisingly realistic science.
1. The Zygons
Zygons first appeared in Doctor Who in 1975 in a spacecraft under Loch Ness. The craft, which had crashed many years earlier, was part mechanical and part organic. So were the technologies inside—including a creepy body printer that enabled the Zygons to take human form and a huge underwater cyborg monster. This long-necked creature looked like a dinosaur, but unlike the of legend, it could walk on land and was strong enough to destroy oil rigs.
We haven’t started growing our vehicles yet, although prototype bio-cars do exist, with parts made of cellulose (an organic compound found in plant cell walls). So far, engineers have created bioplastics from . They’re stronger and lighter than petroleum-based plastics, as well as renewable. Nanocellulose bioplastics can also be made using pineapple leaves and coconut shells. In 2022, an Israeli inventor that he could make an entire car out of cellulose material found in sewage.